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A history of the Antonine Wall and a guide to the surviving remains of Rome’s Northernmost Frontier


Bar Hill Roman Fort | CastlesFortsBattles.co.uk

Towering over the Kelvin Valley, Bar Hill Roman Fort was the highest fortification on the Antonine Wall, Rome’s northernmost frontier between AD 142 and 160. Garrisoned by units raised in France and Syria it was abandoned when the Romans withdrew back to Hadrian’s Wall.

Bearsden Roman Fort and Bath House | CastlesFortsBattles.co.uk

One of the secondary outposts of the Antonine Wall, added after a decision to move more garrisons onto the line of the Wall, Bearsden Roman Fort was built in an unusual configuration. Possibly a cavalry base it was occupied for around twenty years.

Castlecary Roman Fort | CastlesFortsBattles.co.uk

Originally founded by General Agricola as one of a number of outposts to control the Clyde/Forth isthmus, Castlecary Roman Fort was later rebuilt as part of the Antonine Frontier. One of only two masonry fortifications on that line, its stone was later recycled into Castlecary Tower.

Cramond Roman Fort | CastlesFortsBattles.co.uk

Although not connected to the Wall itself, Cramond Fort was an integral part of the Antonine frontier. Its one thousand strong infantry Regiment guarded the northern shores of Lothian and the facility also functioned as a supply base for provisioning the garrisons along the Wall.

Lurg Moor Roman Fortlet | CastlesFortsBattles.co.uk

Part of the frontier system associated with the Antonine Wall, Lurg Moor Roman Fortlet enabled monitoring of activity along the River Clyde. Built at 250 metres above sea-level, its effectiveness must have been greatly reduced by the weather on many occasions.

Rough Castle (Roman Fort) | CastlesFortsBattles.co.uk

Rough Castle was a small earth and timber fort on the Antonine Wall. Only occupied for around twenty years it was seemingly attacked around AD 155 and, when the Romans re-established the frontier on Hadrian’s Wall in the AD 160s, the fort was abandoned.

Ardoch Roman Fort | CastlesFortsBattles.co.uk

Occupying a key strategic route through Perthshire, the site of Ardoch Fort regularly hosted a Roman military presence in the first to third centuries AD. The fort itself was rebuilt twice whilst Emperor Severus built a vast marching camp here for an army over 30,000 men strong.

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Breeze, D.J (2011). The Frontiers of Imperial Rome. Pen and Sword Books Ltd, Barnsley.

Burns R (2009). The Last Frontier: The Roman Invasions of Scotland. Neil Wilson Publishing, London.

Campbell, D (2010). Mons Graupius AD 83. Osprey, Oxford.

Fields, N (2005). Rome’s Northern Frontier AD 70-235. Osprey, Oxford.

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MacDonald, G (2010). The Roman Wall in Scotland. General Books, London.

RCAHMS (2008). The Antonine Wall, 1:25,000 Scale. RCAHMS, Edinburgh.

Robertson, A. S and Keppie, L (1990). The Antonine Wall: A handbook to the surviving remains (4th edition). Glasgow Archaeological Society, Glasgow.

Shotter, D (1998). The Roman Frontier in Britain. Carnegie Publishing Ltd, London.

Skinner, D. N (1973). The countryside of the Antonine Wall: A survey and recommended policy statement. Countryside Commission, Perth.

Waite, J (2011). To Rule Britannia. The History Press, Stroud.


Historic Scotland

Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS)

Roman Britain